China produced 517,000 new energy vehicles in 2016, surging by 51.7% from a year earlier, including 263,000 battery-electric passenger vehicles, soaring 73.1% year on year, and 81,000 plug-in hybrid passenger vehicles, up 29.9%, 154,000 battery-electric commercial vehicles, rising by 50.2% year on year, and 18,000 plug-in hybrid commercial vehicles, decreasing by 22.5% year on year. In 2016, new energy vehicles made up 1.8% of China’s total production and sales of vehicles (output: 28.119 million units, sales: 28.028 million units), an increase of four percentage points from a year ago. New energy vehicle ownership approximated 1 million units in China in 2016, basically accomplishing phased target of the Planning for the Development of New Energy Vehicle during 2012-2020. It is expected that EV sales will reach 2.11 million units in 2020 with EV ownership exceeding 5 million units.
Driven by rapid development of new energy vehicles, the supporting facilities like charging station and charging pile also flourish. Charging station ownership in China increased from 76 in 2010 to 5,600 in 2016 at a CAGR of 104.8%. The number of public charging piles grew from 1,122 to 150,000 at a CAGR of 126.1% during the same period. In addition to public charging piles, private charging pile ownership reached about 170,000 units in 2016, thus bringing the country’s total number of charging piles up to nearly 310,000.
The construction of charging piles in major cities that promote new energy vehicles in China is as follows:
(1) By the end of 2016, Beijing has built 612 charging stations and approximately 60,000 charging piles (public +private). In particular, 23 charging operators are accessed onto public management platform and more than 6,000 charging piles are available; and 5,000 communities or more have installed a total of 26,000 self-use charging piles. Additionally, Beijing Municipal Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development collaborated with State Grid to finish altering the charging conditions in 327 communities.
(2) By the end of 2016, Shanghai has built 227 pubic fast charging stations, 22 fast charging stations on expressways, 12 bus charging stations, 2 public charging stations for energy storage, and a total number of 5,084 charging piles.
As to industrial policies, China introduced a series of documents, such as the Circular on Issues Related to the Policy on Price of Electricity Used by EVs, the Circular on Rewarding the Construction of New Energy Vehicle Charging Facilities, and the Circular on Incentive Policies on New Energy Vehicle Charging Facilities and Strengthening the Popularization and Application of New Energy Vehicles during the 13th Five-year Plan Period (Exposure Draft), encouraging the construction of charging piles and allocating central fiscal funds to subsidize the provinces and enterprises which construct and operate charging piles in a sound way so as to stimulate enthusiasm of the society to participate in the construction of charging piles.
China aims to build 12,000 centralized charging/battery swap stations and 4.8 million scattered charging piles across the country by 2020 to meet charging demand of 5 million EVs in principle of 1 vehicle to 1 charging pile. Regionally, the EV charging stations that have been built are primarily concentrated in eastern provinces in East China, North China, and South China, of which Beijing, Shanghai, and Qingdao are the cities with massive construction of EV charging stations in China.
With introduction of incentive policies on charging facilities, all parts of the countries have ramped up their efforts to build charging piles, and the companies that run charging pile business also announce to build tens of thousands of charging piles in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Operators of charging facilities, manufacturers of equipment, and providers of integrated solutions are three major roles in charging pile industry chain. There are three main business models in charging pile industry: “charging pile + commodity retail + service consumption”, “carmakers + equipment manufacturers + operators + users”, and “charging APP + cloud services + remote intelligent management”.
China EV Charging Station and Charging Pile Market Report, 2016-2020 by ResearchInChina highlights the following:
- Industrial policies on car charging station/pile, including policies on subsidies for new energy vehicles, policies on subsidies and rewards for construction of charging piles, the planning for promotion of new energy vehicles, the planning for construction of charging piles, policies on basic electricity tariff of charging and service charges over the next five years;
- Development status of new energy vehicles around the world and in China, including output and sales data in major markets (global, USA, Europe, Japan, and China), and status quo & trends of new energy vehicles (passenger vehicles, buses, logistic vehicles) in China;
- Development characteristics of charging pile globally, covering policies on subsidies for charging pile in major countries, in-depth analysis of charging port standards (America’s SAE, Europe’s ICE, Japan’s CHAdeMO, and China’s GB/T), and study of mainstream charging equipment and operators;
- Development of car charging station/pile industry in China, including analysis of 5-year planning for construction of charging pile, particularly profit models and crowdfunding models of charging pile, and driving habits and charging behaviors of new energy vehicle users;
- Construction of charging piles in more than 30 provinces and cities by the end of 2016 and construction plans
- 13 global and Chinese charging operators (operating models, profit models, APP, partners);
- Operation and development strategies of 8 Chinese suppliers of car charging equipment;
- Major Chinese carmakers’ strategic layout in charging field and cooperation with charging equipment suppliers and charging operators.