The Global Market for Nanoelectronics

Published: April 2016
No. of Pages: 470
   

The electronics industry will witness significant change and growth in the next decade driven by:

  • Scaling
  • Growth of mobile wireless devices
  • Huge growth in the Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Data, logic and applications moving to the Cloud
  • Ubiquitous electronics.

To meet these market demands, power and functionality needs to improve hugely, while being cost effective, driving demand for nanomaterials that will allow for novel architectures, new types of energy harvesting and sensor integration. As well as allowing for greater power, improved performance and bandwith, decreased size and cost, improved flexibility and better thermal management, the exploitation of nanomaterials allows for new device designs, new package architectures, new network architectures and new manufacturing processes. This will lead to greater device integration and density, and reduced time to market.

Semiconducting inorganic nanowires (NWs), carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, nanofibers, quantum dots, graphene and other 2D materials have been extensively explored in recent years as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics, optoelectronics and photonics components, coatings and devices.

The Global Market for Nanoelectronics

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary 31
1.1 Market Drivers and Trends 32
1.1.1 Scaling 32
1.1.2 Growth of Mobile Wireless Devices 32
1.1.3 Internet of Things (LOT) 32
1.1.4 Data, Logic and Applications Moving To The Cloud 34
1.1.5 Ubiquitous Electronics 35
1.1.6 Nanomaterials For New Device Design and Architectures 36
1.1.7 Carbon and 2D Nanomaterials 37

2 Properties of Nanomaterials 39
2.1 Categorization 40

3 Nanomaterials In Electronics 43
3.1 Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles 46
3.1.1 Properties 46
3.1.2 Applications In Electronics 47
3.2 Carbon Nanotubes 50
3.2.1 Properties 50
3.2.1.1 Multi-Walled Nanotubes (MWNT) 50
3.2.1.2 Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) 51
3.2.1.3 Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (Dwnts) 55
3.2.1.4 Few-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (Fwnts) 57
3.2.1.5 Carbon Nanohorns (Cnhs) 57
3.2.1.6 Carbon Onions 58
3.2.1.7 Boron Nitride Nanotubes (Bnnts) 61
3.2.2 Applications In Electronics 63
3.3 Nanofibers 64
3.3.1 Properties 64
3.3.2 Applications In Electronics 65
3.4 Nanowires 68
3.4.1 Properties 68
3.4.1.1 Silver Nanowires 69
3.4.2 Applications In Electronics 69
3.5 Quantum Dots 71
3.5.1 Properties 71
3.5.1.1 Cadmium Selenide, Cadmium Sulfide and Other Materials 73
3.5.1.2 Cadmium Free Quantum Dots 74
3.6 Fullerenes 74
3.6.1 Properties 74
3.6.2 Applications In Electronics 75
3.7 Nanocellulose 75
3.7.1 Properties 75
3.7.2 Applications In Electronics 77
3.8 Graphene 81
3.8.1 Properties 81
3.8.1.1 3D Graphene 83
3.8.1.2 Graphene Quantum Dots 83
3.8.1.3 Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Hybrids 84
3.8.2 Applications In Electronics 84
3.9 Other 2D Materials 86
3.9.1 Phosphorene/Black Phosphorus 87
3.9.2 Properties 88
3.9.3 Applications In Electronics 90
3.9.4 Silicene 91
3.9.4.1 Properties 91
3.9.4.2 Applications In Electronics 93
3.9.5 Molybdenum Disulfide (Mos2) 94
3.9.5.1 Properties 94
3.9.5.2 Applications In Electronics 96
3.9.6 Hexagonal Boron Nitride 97
3.9.6.1 Properties 97
3.9.6.2 Applications In Electronics 99
3.9.7 Germanene 9
3.9.7.1 Properties 99
3.9.7.2 Applications In Electronics 101
3.9.8 Graphdiyne 102
3.9.8.1 Properties 102
3.9.8.2 Applications In Electronics 103
3.9.9 Graphane 103
3.9.9.1 Properties 103
3.9.9.2 Applications In Eletronics 104
3.9.10 Stanene/Tinene 105
3.9.10.1 Properties 105
3.9.10.2 Applications In Electronics 106
3.9.11 Tungsten Diselenide 107
3.9.11.1 Properties 107
3.9.11.2 Applications In Electronics 108
3.9.12 RHENIUM DISULFIDE (Res2) & Diselenide (Rese2) 109
3.9.12.1 Properties 109
3.9.12.2 Applications In Electronics 110
3.9.13 C2N 110
3.9.13.1 Properties 110
3.9.13.2 Applications In Electronics 112
3.9.14 Comparative Analysis of Graphene and Other 2d Materials 113

4 Flexible Electronics, Transparent Conductive Films and Displays 115
4.1 Market Drivers and Trends 115
4.1.1 ITO Replacement 115
4.1.1.1 ITO Shortcomings 116
4.1.1.2 Alternative Materials 117
4.1.2 Growth In Wearable Electronics 122
4.1.2.1 Physical Monitoring 124
4.1.3 Touch Technology Requirements 125
4.1.4 Cost and Environmental Friendliness 126
4.1.5 Improved Performance With Less Power 128
4.1.6 Lower Cost Compared To OLED In Displays 128
4.1.7 Need For Improved Barrier Function 129
4.2 Market Size and Opportunity 130
4.2.1 ITO Replacement Materials In TCF 130
4.2.2 Wearable Electronics 140
4.2.3 QD-Tvs and Displays 143
4.3 Nanomaterials Applications 145
4.3.1 Swnts 146
4.3.2 Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes 148
4.3.3 Graphene 148
4.3.4 Silver Nanowires 153
4.3.5 Quantum Dots 155
4.3.5.1 On-Edge (Edge Optic) 164
4.3.5.2 On-Surface (Film) 165
4.3.5.3 On-Chip 166
4.3.6 Quantum Rods 167
4.3.7 Quantum Converters With Red Phosphors 167
4.3.8 Nanocellulose 168
4.3.8.1 Flexible Energy Storage 172
4.3.9 Copper Nanowires 173
4.3.10 Nanofibers 174
4.4 Challenges 174
4.4.1 Fabricating SWNT Devices 174
4.4.2 Fabricating Graphene Devices 175
4.4.3 Competing Materials 176
4.4.4 Cost In Comparison To ITO 176
4.4.5 Problems With Transfer and Growth 177
4.4.6 Improving Sheet Resistance 178
4.4.7 High Surface Roughness of Silver Nanowires 180
4.4.8 Electrical Properties 181
4.5 Product Developers 181

5 Printable Conductive Inks 188
5.1 Market Drivers and Trends 188
5.1.1 Increased Demand For Printed Electronics 188
5.1.2 Limitations Of Existing Conductive Inks 189
5.1.3 Growth In The 3d Printing Market 190
5.1.4 Growth In Printed Sensors Market 191
5.2 Market Size and Opportunity 192
5.3 Nanomaterials Applications 200
5.3.1 Carbon Nanotubes 200
5.3.2 Graphene 201
5.3.3 Nanocellulose 203
5.3.4 Silver Nanoparticle Inks 203
5.3.5 Copper Nanoparticle Inks 205
5.3.6 Silver Nanowires 205
5.4 Challenges 207
5.4.1 Processing 207
5.4.2 Oxidation 207
5.4.3 Cracking 208
5.4.4 Contact Resistance 208
5.4.5 Aggregation 209

6 Transistors, Integrated Circuits and Other Components. 214
6.1 Market Drivers and Trends 214
6.1.1 Scaling 214
6.1.2 Limitations Of Current Materials 218
6.1.3 Limitations Of Copper As Interconnect Materials 218
6.1.4 Need To Improve Bonding Technology 219
6.1.5 Need To Improve Thermal Properties 220
6.2 Market Size and Opportunity 220
6.2.1 Graphene and 2d Materials 220
6.2.2 Carbon Nanotubes 221
6.3 Nanomaterials Applications 221
6.3.1 Nanowires 222
6.3.2 Carbon Nanotubes 226
6.3.2.1 Thin Film Transistors (Tft) 227
6.3.2.2 Carbon Nanotube (Cnt) Fet 227
6.3.2.3 Cmos Transistors 228
6.3.2.4 Electronics Packaging 229
6.3.2.5 Thermal Management 230
6.3.2.6 Insulation 231
6.3.3 Graphene 231
6.3.3.1 Integrated Circuits 231
6.3.3.2 Graphene Radio Frequency (Rf) Circuits 233
6.3.4 Other 2d Materials 234
6.3.5 Quantum Dots 234
6.4 Challenges 235
6.4.1 Device Complexity 235
6.4.2 Competition From Other Materials 236
6.4.3 Lack Of Band Gap 236
6.4.4 Transfer and Integration 237
6.5 Product Developers 239

7 Memory Devices 243
7.1 Market Drivers and Trends 243
7.1.1 Technological and Physical Limitations 243
7.1.2 Growth In The Smartphone and Tablet Markets 244
7.1.3 Growth In The Flexible Electronics Market 244
7.2 Market Size and Opportunity 246
7.3 Nanomaterials Applications 249
7.3.1 Carbon Nanotubes 251
7.3.2 Graphene and Other 2d Materials 255
7.3.2.1 Properties 255
7.3.2.2 Reram Memory 256
7.3.2.3 Applications 257
7.3.3 Magnetic Nanoparticles 257
7.4 Challenges 258
7.5 Product Developers 259

8 Electronics Coatings 262
8.1 Market Drivers and Trends 263
8.1.1 Huge Increase In Touch Panel Usage 263
8.1.2 Demand For Multi-Functional, Active Coatings 264
8.1.3 Need For More Effective Protection 267
8.1.4 Waterproofing and Permeability 267
8.1.5 Need For Efficient Moisture and Oxygen Protection In Flexible and Organic Electronics 269
8.1.6 Improved Aesthetics and Reduced Maintenance 269
8.1.7 Electronics Packaging 270
8.1.8 Growth In The Optical and Optoelectronic Devices Market 270
8.1.9 Improved Performance and Cost Over Traditional Ar Coatings 271
8.1.10 Growth In The Solar Energy Market 272
8.2 Nanomaterials Applications 274
8.2.1 Waterproof Nanocoatings 275
8.2.1.1 Barrier Films 276
8.2.1.2 Hydrophobic Coatings 277
8.2.2 Anti-Fingerprint Nanocoatings 278
8.2.3 Anti-Reflection Nanocoatings 280
8.3 Market Size and Opportunity 282
8.3.1 Anti-Fingerprint Nanocoatings 282
8.3.2 Anti-Reflective Nanocoatings 283
8.3.3 Waterproof Nanocoatings 284
8.4 Challenges 286
8.4.1 Durability 286
8.4.2 Dispersion 286
8.4.3 Cost 286
8.5 Product Developers 287

9 Photonics 296
9.1 Market Drivers 296
9.1.1 Demand For High Speed Data Transfer 296
9.1.2 Emerging Field Of Quantum Computing 296
9.2 Nanomaterials Applications 297
9.2.1 Graphene 297
9.2.1.1 Optical Modulators 297
9.2.1.2 Photodetectors 299
9.2.1.3 Plasmonics 302
9.2.2 Quantum Dots 303
9.2.2.1 Quantum Photonics 303
9.2.2.2 Spectroscopy 305
9.2.3 Lithium Niobate Nanoparticles 306
9.2.4 Nanowires 306
9.2.4.1 Lasers 306
9.2.4.2 Photodetectors 307
9.3 Challenges 308

10 Nanoelectronics Product Developers 310-470 (174 Company Profiles)

List of Tables

Table 1: Semiconductor Components Of Iot Devices 33
Table 2: Nanoelectronics In Next Generation Information Processing 36
Table 3: Categorization Of Nanomaterials 40
Table 4: Nanomaterials In Electronics 42
Table 5: Electronics Markets and Applications Of Nanoparticles 47
Table 6: Comparison Between Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (Swcnt) and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes 55
Table 7: Electronics Markets and Applications Of Carbon Nanotubes 63
Table 8: Types Of Nanofibers, Properties and Applications 64
Table 9: Electronics Markets and Applications Of Nanofibers 65
Table 10: Electronics Markets and Applications Nanowires 69
Table 11: Properties and Applications Of Nanocellulose 76
Table 12: Properties Of Graphene 81
Table 13: Electronic and Mechanical Properties Of Monolyaer Phosphorene, Graphene and Mos2. 89
Table 14: Comparative Analysis Of Graphene and Other 2-D Nanomaterials. 112
Table 15: Comparative Analysis Of Ito Replacement Materials 120
Table 16: Overview Of Metal-Based Tcfs 130
Table 17: Application Markets, Competing Materials, Nanomaterials Advantages and Current Market Size In Flexible Substrates 138
Table 18: Properties Of Swnts and Graphene Relevant To Flexible Electronics. 144
Table 19: Comparative Cost Of Tcf Materials 144
Table 20: Advantages and Disadvantages Of Lcds, Oleds and Qds 155
Table 21: Approaches For Integrating Qds Into Displays 160
Table 22: Commercially Available Quantum Dot Display Products 165
Table 23: Nanomaterials Product and Application Developers In Flexible Electronics, Transparent Conductive Films and Displays 181
Table 24: Comparative Properties Of Conductive Inks 189
Table 25: Comparative Analysis Of Conductive Inks 192
Table 26: Opportunities For Nanomaterials In Printed Electronics 198
Table 27: Nanomaterials Product and Application Developers In Conductive Inks. 209
Table 28: Comparison Of Cu, Cnts and Graphene As Interconnect Materials. 219
Table 29: Types Of Nanowires In Semiconductor Devices 223
Table 30: Applications Of Semiconductor Nanowires 224
Table 31: Graphene Properties Relevant To Transistors 232
Table 32: 2d Si Replacement Materials 234
Table 33: Nanomaterials Product and Application Developers In Transistors and Integrated Circuits. 239
Table 34: Graphene Based Reram Advantage Versus Other Memory Types. 248
Table 35: Challenges For Implementation Of Nanomaterials In Memory Devices. 259
Table 36: Nanomaterials Product and Application Developers In Memory Devices. 260
Table 37: Properties Of Nanocoatings 265
Table 38: Nanocoatings Applied In The Consumer Electronics Industry 274
Table 39: Anti-Reflective Nanocoatings-Markets and Applications 281
Table 40: Market Opportunity For Anti-Reflection Nanocoatings 284
Table 41: Nanomaterials Product and Application Developers In Electronics Coatings. 287
Table 42: Graphene Properties Relevant To Application In Optical Modulators. 298
Table 43: Quantum Dots In Quantum Photonics 304
Table 44: Applications Of Semiconductor Nanowires In Photonics 307
Table 45: Challenges With Nanomaterials In Photonics Applications 308
Table 46: Nanoelectronics Industrial Collaborations and Target Markets 311

List of Figures

Figure 1: Schematic Of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube 53
Figure 2: Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundle Cross-Section Micrograph and Model. 56
Figure 3: Schematic Representation Of Carbon Nanohorns 58
Figure 4: Tem Image Of Carbon Onion 60
Figure 5: Schematic Of Boron Nitride Nanotubes (Bnnts). Alternating B and N Atoms Are Shown In Blue and Red 63
Figure 6: Quantum Dot 71
Figure 7: Electronics Markets and Applications Of Fullerenes 75
Figure 8: Electronics Markets and Applications Of Nanocellulose 78
Figure 9: Nanocellulose Photoluminescent Paper 79
Figure 10: Leds Shining On Circuitry Imprinted On A 5x5cm Sheet Of Cnf 80
Figure 11: Phosphorene Structure 88
Figure 12: Silicene Structure 91
Figure 13: Monolayer Silicene On A Silver (111) Substrate 92
Figure 14: Silicene Transistor 93
Figure 15: Structure Of 2d Molybdenum Disulfide 94
Figure 16: Atomic Force Microscopy Image Of A Representative Mos2 Thin-Film Transistor. 96
Figure 17: Structure Of Hexagonal Boron Nitride 97
Figure 18: Schematic Of Germanene 99
Figure 19: Graphdiyne Structure 102
Figure 20: Schematic Of Graphane Crystal 103
Figure 21: Crystal Structure For Stanene 105
Figure 22: Atomic Structure Model For The 2d Stanene On Bi2te3(111) 106
Figure 23: Schematic Of Tungsten Diselenide 107
Figure 24: Schematic Of A Monolayer Of Rhenium Disulphide 108
Figure 25: Structural Difference Between Graphene and C2n-H2d Crystal: (A) Graphene; (B) C2n-H2d Crystal 110
Figure 26: Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) Using Graphene Electrode. 119
Figure 27: A Large Transparent Conductive Graphene Film (About 20 × 20 Cm2) Manufactured By 2d Carbon Tech. Figure 24a (Right): Prototype Of A Mobile Phone Produced By 2d Carbon Tech Using A Graphene Touch Panel 132
Figure 28: Global Touch Panel Market ($ Million), 2011-2018 132
Figure 29: Capacitive Touch Panel Market Forecast By Layer Structure (Ksqm). 133
Figure 30: Global Transparent Conductive Film Market Forecast (Million $). 134
Figure 31: Global Transparent Conductive Film Market Forecast By Materials Type, 2012-2020, Millions $ 135
Figure 32: Global Transparent Conductive Film Market Forecast By Materials Type, 2015, % 136
Figure 33: Global Transparent Conductive Film Market Forecast By Materials Type, 2020, % 137
Figure 34: Global Market For Smart Sports Clothing (Millions Us$) 140
Figure 35: Global Market For Smart Wearables (Millions Us$) 141
Figure 36: Total Qd Display Component Revenues 2013-2025 ($M), Conservative and Optimistic Estimates 143
Figure 37: Graphene Electrochromic Devices. Top Left: Exploded-View Illustration Of The Graphene Electrochromic Device. The Device Is Formed By Attaching Two Graphene-Coated Pvc Substrates Faceto-Face and Filling The Gap With A Liquid Ionic Electrolyte 150
Figure 38: Flexible Transistor Sheet 151
Figure 39: Bending Durability Of Ag Nanowires 154
Figure 40: Samsung Qd-Lcd Tvs 155
Figure 41: The Light-Blue Curve Represents A Typical Spectrum From A Conventional White-Led Lcd Tv. With Quantum Dots, The Spectrum Is Tunable To Any Colours Of Red, Green, and Blue, and Each Color Is Limited To A Narrow Band 159
Figure 42: Methods For Integrating Qds Into Lcd System. (A) On-Chip (B) On-Edge. (C) On-Surface. 162
Figure 43: On-Edge Configuration 163
Figure 44: Qd-Film Integration Into A Standard Lcd Display 164
Figure 45: Quantum Phosphor Schematic In Led Tv Backlight 167
Figure 46: Nfc Computer Chip 169
Figure 47: Nfc Translucent Diffuser Schematic 170
Figure 48: Nanocellulose Photoluminescent Paper 172
Figure 49: Leds Shining On Circuitry Imprinted On A 5x5cm Sheet Of Cnf 173
Figure 50: The Transmittance Of Glass/Ito, Glass/Ito/Four Organic Layers, and Glass/Ito/Four Organic Layers/4-Layer Graphene 180
Figure 51: Global Market For Conductive Inks and Pastes In Printed Electronics. 197
Figure 52: Vorbeck Materials Conductive Ink Products 198
Figure 53: Nanotube Inks 200
Figure 54: Graphene Printed Antenna 201
Figure 55: Bgt Materials Graphene Ink Product 203
Figure 56: Silver Nanocomposite Ink After Sintering and Resin Bonding Of Discrete Electronic Components 204
Figure 57: Transparent Conductive Film Incorporating Silver Nanowires 206
Figure 58: Transistor Architecture Trend Chart 215
Figure 59: Schematic Cross-Section Of A Graphene Based Transistor (Gbt, Left) and A Graphene Fieldeffect Transistor (Gfet, Right) 216
Figure 60: Cmos Technology Roadmap 217
Figure 61: Emerging Logic Devices 222
Figure 62: Figure 38: Thin Film Transistor Incorporating Cnts 229
Figure 63: Graphene Ic In Wafer Tester 232
Figure 64: Stretchable Cnt Memory and Logic Devices For Wearable Electronics. 245
Figure 65: Graphene Oxide-Based Rram Device On A Flexible Substrate 245
Figure 66: Layered Structure Of Tantalum Oxide, Multilayer Graphene and Platinum Used For Resistive Random Access Memory (Rram) 248
Figure 67: Emerging Memory Devices 250
Figure 68: Carbon Nanotubes Nram Chip 251
Figure 69: Schematic Of Nram Cell 254
Figure 70: A Schematic Diagram For The Mechanism Of The Resistive Switching In Metal/Go/Pt. 257
Figure 71: Phone Coated In Waterblock Submerged In Water Tank 268
Figure 72: Demo Solar Panels Coated With Nanocoatings 273
Figure 73: Schematic Of Barrier Nanoparticles Deposited On Flexible Substrates. 277
Figure 74: Schematic Of Anti-Fingerprint Nanocoatings 279
Figure 75: Toray Anti-Fingerprint Film (Left) and An Existing Lipophilic Film (Right). 280
Figure 76: Schematic Of Ar Coating Utilizing Nanoporous Coating 281
Figure 77: Schematic Of Khepricoat®. Image Credit: Dsm 283
Figure 78: Nanocoating Submerged In Water 285
Figure 79: Prototype Graphene Photosensor 299
Figure 80: Hybrid Graphene Phototransistors 301
Figure 81: Wearable Health Monitor Incorporating Graphene Photodetectors. 302
Figure 82: Quantum Dot Spectrometer 305

Published By: Future Markets, Inc.
Product Code: Future Markets, Inc.1011


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