SiC Patent Analysis Single Crystal, Wafer and Epiwafer Manufacturing

Published: July 2012
No. of Pages:

1772 patent families to support a $80M business in 2012

Despite a cumulative raw wafers + epi wafers market that won’t exceed $80M in 2012, the corpus of related patents comprises over 1772 patent families and more than 350 companies since 1928. 83% of patents represent a method while 17% of them claim an apparatus.

Since 1978 the main technique to grow bulk single-crystals of silicon carbide is PVT: Physical Vapor Transport (seeded sublimation method) which represents 36% of published patents. This PVT technique mostly deals with the hexagonal polytype nH-SiC (n=2,4,6). Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) is an alternative route to grow SiC (early efforts date back to 1961). It allows crystals to grow with low dislocation densities and at relatively low temperatures (attractive for cubic polytype 3C-SiC).

About 37% of patents claim a Chemical Vapor Deposition technique (CVD) which is almost exclusively used today to manufacture SiC epiwafer. The Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is only mentioned within 1% of patents. The polytype (hexagonal or cubic) is explicitly claimed in 15% of patents. Numerous strategies to reduce crystal defects (micropipes, carrots …) and make semi-insulating material are proposed in 23% and 10% of patents respectively.


About 350 applicants are involved in SiC crystal/epiwafer technology. They are mainly located in Japan (72% of patents) and USA (12% of patents). The five major applicants based on their patents number are Denso, Sumitomo, Nippon Steel, Bridgestone and Toyota. They represent about 35% of studied patents. The first US firm Cree Inc. occupies the 6th position. This balance is totally uncorrelated from the reality of the market where 75% of the SiC wafer business is generated by US-based companies, namely CREE, II-VI or Dow Corning. Japan is only responsible for 5% of the revenues (at least before SiCrystal Acquisition by Rohm). Same observations are seen in Europe and Asia (out of Japan) where the [# of patents/revenues] ratio is very weak at the moment.


Japan is increasingly involved in SiC technology since the 1980’s. United States was the early player and still is active. In contrast, only 3 Japanese companies are commercially active in SiC material: Showa Denko (epiwafer), Bridgestone (wafer) and Nippon Steel (wafer and epiwafer).

China and Korea emerged as new players during the last five years along with the establishment of companies such as Epiworld (CN), TianYue (CN), TYSTC (CN), Tankeblue (CN), SKC (KR).However, these companies market shares remain very low at the moment.


It looks obvious that IP considerations do not create a differentiating factor for success in the SiC substrate business. CREE is leading this industry with about 50% market share on a worldwide basis, and has clearly the best reputation in terms of quality, diameter and reproducibility. However, CREE does not own the widest patent portfolio. Thus, know-how and patent numbers do not seem correlated.

The only field where number of patents and business size appears to be more balanced is Semi-Insulating (S.I.) SiC technology where both CREE (Vanadium-free) and II-VI (Vanadium-doped) have extensively patented their respective developments.


The barriers to the entry in the SiC substrate world are very high: today state-of-the-art deals with 6” diameter, likely no-micropipe and very low dislocation density. Only CREE seems able to offer such a product today. Why?

First of all, CREE has been widely funded by DoD, DoE, DARPA and Navy contracts during these last 20 years, meaning CREE had comfortable position to handle lots of experiments and improve the technology for both LED and Power Electronics. So mastering SiC growth is probably a question of money, but clearly a question of development time, that cannot be compressed.

It looks reasonable then to think there  has been a cross-fertilization between LED and Power businesses that allowed CREE to benefit from the LED mass manufacturing, which is probably less stringent than power at wafer level, to fuel the power electronics side. Finally, the R&D efforts have never ended, maintaining CREE leadership in the safe-area. Apart from receiving funding to develop the technology, the only options to enter quickly in the SiC substrate battlefield appears to be  through M&A (Merger & Acquisition) of an existing activity or to buy a license and related know-how, paying royalties in return. However who is for sale? Virtually nobody is at this current time. Beyond the  top five SiC substrate leaders, we don’t see a clear positioning of  companies who may want to participate in a sale or merger of their business. Ultimately, we should pay attention to the new developments around LPE (Liquid Phase Epitaxy), done by Toyota, Denso or Sumitomo,   as well as 3C-SiC (Cubic) which may disrupt the current PVT domination.


This study presents the patent landscape for SiC single crystal and epiwafer over a total of 1772 patent families. Several key patents are selected based upon their interest regarding the particular technological issues related to the SiC development, as well as their possible blocking factor for new competing development.
The report puts in contrast the patent landscape with the current and expected market status, highlighting the most active companies, the patent transfer and the sleeping IP. The document also highlights and describes the key patents that could possibly block new comers, for both crystal and epi-growth.

Thanks to more than 12 years involvement in the SiC field, Yole is able to present a unique cross-analysis between market dynamics, technology improvement, industry shaping and related patent activity.

The report goes along with Excel™ spreadsheets presenting the 1772 patents (Publication Number, Publication Date, Priority Date, Title, Abstract, Assignee(s) and Inventor(s), Legal Status) with direct link to the full patent text and pictures.

ABB, ACREO, AIST, Ascatron, ATMI, Bridgestone, C9 Corporation, Cabot, Cree, Crysband, Denso, Dow Corning, Ecotron, Epiworld, Fuji Electric, Fujimi, Fujitsu, Hitachi, Hoya, II-VI, Infineon, Kansai Electric Power, Kwansei Gakuin Univ., Mitsubishi, Mitsui, NASA, National Tsing Hua Univ., N-Crystals, NEC, NeoSemitech, Nippon Pillar Packing, Nippon Steel, NIRO, Nisshin Steel, Norstel, North Carolina Univ., Northrop Grumann, NovaSiC, Okmetic, Panasonic, POSCO, Rohm, Sanyo, SemiSouth, Sharp, Shikusuon, Shinetsu Chemical, Showa Denko, SiC Systems, SiCilab, SiCrystal, Siemens, Sumitomo Metal Industries, TankeBlue, Toshiba, Toyota, TyanYue, TYSTC, United Silicon Carbide, US Navy, Widetronix

SiC Patent Analysis Single Crystal, Wafer and Epiwafer Manufacturing

Context and frame of the survey
Definitions & glossary
Objective and methodology
Executive summary
Overview of SiC Substrate Market
SiC Raw Substrate Market

    SiC bulk wafer manufacturing fundamentals
    State-of-the-art in SiC Crystal Growth
    SiC growth technologies main concepts
    From polytype to devices
    From Powder to SiC Epi-ready Wafers
    SiC Crystal Growth Technique comparison table
    Main SiC Material Manufacturing Site Locations
    Commercially Available Material Polytypes, Doping & Orientation
    Evolution of Relative Market Shares in the SiC Business
    Current business model
    Origin of SiC involvement
    Status of the SiC wafer suppliers as of late 2011
    Market Size Projection for SiC Substrates in Various Applications 2010-2020
    Market volume projection split by diameter 2010-2020
    Wafer Diameter Evolution in Production for Power Electronics: 2005-2020
    Wafer Diameter Evolution in Production for GaN/SiC LED: 2005-2020
    Wafer Diameter Evolution in Production for GaN/SiC RF devices: 2005-2020

SiC Epitaxy Market

    SiC epi-wafer manufacturing fundamentals
    Current business model
    Status of the SiC epi-wafer suppliers as of late 2011
    SiC Epi-house and Epi-service Offers
    SiC Epitaxy evolution forecast
    Opportunity for an epi-service house
    SiC Epitaxy Market Estimate
    The µm.wafer method
    Annual Volume of Epitaxy Demand in µm.wafer split by application to 2020
    Market Projection for SiC Epitaxy Demand to 2020
    Outsourced SiC Epitaxy Business Revenues to 2020
    Typical process time

SiC Patent Landscape

    Evolution of SiC patent publication time-line
    Regional distribution of patents based on
    priority & publication country
    Regional comparison of % of filed patents vs. revenues by headquarter location
    Regional distribution of patents priority time-line
    TOP-20 leading patent applicants
    TOP-15 leading patent applicants over the time
    TOP-15 leading patent applicants by publication country
    Assignee collaboration network
    Keyword and strategy of research for the technological segmentation
    SiC patents, by technology
    Company assignee vs. technology matrix
    Company assignee vs. technology matrix: Analysis

Focus on SiC single-crystal patent landscape

    The 4 main technologies for SiC single-crystal growth
    SiC single-crystal growth patents time-line
    SiC single-crystal growth patent companies involvement
    TOP-15 leading patent applicants over the time for SiC finishing
    Focus on Physical Vaport Transport (PVT)
    Patent time-line
    PVT patents company involvement
    TOP-15 leading patent applicants over the time for PVT
    Focus on Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE)
    Patent time-line
    LPE patents company involvement
    TOP-15 leading patent applicants over the time for LPE

Key patents in SiC crystal growth

    How did we select key patents ?
    Key patents / issues / timeline
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh (US)
    Nisshin Steel (JP): sublimation process
    Siemens (DE): Sublimation reactor design
    ABB Research (CH) & Okmetic (FI): HTCVD method
    Northrop Grummann (US): Vanadium-doped S.I. SiC
    Northrop Grummann (US): seed enlargement
    CREE (US): Vanadium-free S.I. SiC
    Sumitomo (JP): LPE technique
    CREE (US): low dislocation density
    CREE (US): defects reduction
    Nippon Steel (JP): Va-doped method
    CREE (US): High-resistivity SiC crystal
    CREE (US): low micropipe density
    Toyota (J): LPE technology

SiC epitaxy

    SiC epitaxy patents time-line
    SiC epitaxy patent companies involvement
    TOP-15 leading patent applicants over the time for SiC finishing
    Focus on nH-SiC polytype epitaxy
    Focus on 3C-SiC polytype
    Focus on defect reduction
    Focus on Semi-insulating & p-type

Key patents in SiC epitaxy

    How did we select key patents ?
    Key patents / issues / timeline
    Fujitsu (J): 3C SiC epitaxy
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh (US)
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US)
    Panasonic (J): CVD growth
    Mitsubishi (J)
    ATMI (US): off-cut epitaxy
    AIST (J)
    CREE (US)
    Toshiba (J): 3C SiC epitaxy
    Hoya (J): ondulant substrate for 3C growth
    National Tsing Hua University (TW): 3C SiC

SiC finishing

    SiC finishing patents time-line
    SiC finishing patent companies involvement
    TOP-15 leading patent applicants over the time for crystal growth

Published By: Yole Developpement
Product Code: Yole Developpement1065

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